The 2020 elections raised serious questions about foul play in the American voting process. Many observers voiced concerns about election integrity in both a narrower sense—the processes and administration of elections—and a broader sense—the overall context in which elections play out. Mollie Hemingway’s Rigged and John Fund and Hans von Spakovsky’s Our Broken Elections: How the Left Changed the Way You Vote address these issues in distinctive but overlapping ways. Hemingway, a senior editor of the Federalist blog and senior journalism fellow at Hillsdale College who earlier this year won the prestigious Bradley Prize for her writing, examines the broader context of the 2020 election and concludes: “The powers that be did whatever it took to prevent Trump from winning his re-election bid in 2020.” Her subtitle discloses who those powers are: How the Media, Big Tech, and the Democrats Seized Our Elections. Fund is a journalist and von Spakovsky a legal scholar who served a stint in the U.S. Department of Justice, both with a longstanding interest in studying and preventing election fraud. Their focus is on election integrity more narrowly defined, both in 2020 and before.

Hemingway provides a very good overview of the forces working against Donald Trump’s presidency and re-election: an unhinged Left, a seemingly interminable

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